Cardiovascular diseases occupy the first place in prevalence in the world. One of the conditions that precede the development of serious pathological disorders in the circulatory system is hypertension. A lot of people suffer from this ailment, but few take the time to treat it because they do not know about the possible consequences of constantly high blood pressure.
In this article, we will talk about what hypertension is, what are the stages and symptoms of hypertension, and we will also discuss what this disease can lead to.
Hypertension and Its Stages
Our blood flows through the arteries (vessels). If the vessels are in normal condition, then nothing prevents healthy blood flow. However, as soon as the vasoconstriction occurs, the pressure in their walls begins to increase because the blood is trying to overcome the resistance that has arisen.
In most cases, the cause of such changes is an incorrect lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle, or eating fast food), which leads to the formation of cholesterol plaques that clog blood vessels. Genes and age may also be risk factors but in any case, hypertension that occurs once will not pass without a trace.
Hypertension is controllable, so it is important to know the indicators of norm and deviation:
- If the tonometer shows 120 systolic and 80 diastolic pressure, then everything is normal.
- Increased pressure occurs when the first value shows 120-129, and the second remains 80. At this stage, it is enough to change your lifestyle.
- The first stage of hypertension occurs when the numbers are 130-139 upper and 80-89 lower pressure.
- The second stage of hypertension is characterized by values of 140-149 upper and 90+ lower pressure.
- A hypertensive crisis occurs when the numbers exceed the mark of 180 upper and 120 lower pressure. In this case, you need to urgently call an ambulance.
For young children and adolescents, blood pressure indicators and norms differ.
Symptoms of Hypertension
In the first two stages, the disease can be asymptomatic for decades and a person can feel the first signs suddenly. However, in the initial stages, hypertension does not pose too much of a threat.
Much more dangerous are the symptoms of severe arterial hypertension, which is characterized by the following condition:
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Confusion of consciousness
- Sleep disorders
- Increased anxiety
Common symptoms of hypertension at all stages are dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea and sometimes nosebleed. However, the best way to check hypertension is to keep a diary and regularly monitor the blood pressure indicators.
Consequences of Hypertension
Despite the fact that hypertension can be asymptomatic, this disease can cause irreparable harm to the health. Firstly, hypertension disrupts the elasticity and strength of blood vessels, which can lead to damage and rupture. Secondly, hypertension makes the heart work faster and more intensively, as a result, the heart muscles wear out faster. Thirdly, a significant violation of blood flow can clog the vessels, and this can lead to a stroke.
Hypertension always strikes the body. The list of consequences is not limited to these three aspects, because against the background of hypertension, the risk of arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden heart attack increases. That is why it is important to control blood pressure and try to lead a healthy lifestyle.